เรื่อง : ภาษามอแกน
Title : Moken Language
ผู้วิจัย : นายสราวุฒิ ไกรเสม
ปีงบประมาณ : ๒๕๕๗
โครงการบันทึกรวบรวม เพื่อการสงวนรักษาภาษาและภูมิปัญญาท้องถิ่น: ภาษามอแกน มี วัตถุประสงค์เพื่อปกป้องคุ้มครองมรดกภูมิปัญญาทางวัฒนธรรม โดยศึกษา บันทึก รวบรวมข้อมูลและจัดทํา คลังข้อมูลมรดกภูมิปัญญาทางด้านวัฒนธรรม และภูมิปัญญาท้องถิ่นของกลุ่มชาติพันธุ์มอแกน ซึ่งอยู่ในภาษา ตระกูลออสโตร-เนเชียน สาขามลาโยโพลีเนเชียน โดยการศึกษารวบรวมครั้งนี้ได้มีการจัดทําระบบเสียง ระบบ คําศัพท์และไวยากรณ์ ตลอดจนวรรณกรรมมุขปาฐะพื้นบ้านของชาวมอแกนไว
การดําเนินการครั้งนี้ ได้มุ่งเน้นกระบวนการมีส่วนร่วมของชุมชนเป็นสําคัญ เพื่อให้ชุมชนกลุ่มชาติพันธุ์ มอแกน มีกําลังใจและเกิดจิตสํานึกในการสงวนรักษาภาษาและภูมิปัญญาของตนไว้เพื่อเป็นมรดกทาง วัฒนธรรมแก่เยาวชนรุ่นหลังต่อไป อีกทั้งยังสามารถนําความรู้และภูมิปัญญาดังกล่าวที่ได้รวบรวมไว้ยัง ประโยชน์ให้กับสังคมส่วนรวมและนําไปสู่การนําเสนอไปยังองการยูเนสโก้ ให้เป็นมรดกทางวัฒนธรรมของ มนุษยชาติเมื่อประเทศไทยเข้าเป็นภาคีต่อไป ผลจากกการศึกษารวบรวมครั้งนี้จะเป็นประโยชน์โดยตรงกับ ชุ มชนชาวมอแกนและวงวิชาการด้านภาษา เนื่องจากเป็นการบันทึกรวบรวมองค์ความรู้ท้องถิ่นด้านภาษาที่ กําลังจะสูญหายไป เพื่อการดํานงรักษาความหลากหลายทางภาษาและวัฒนธรรมที่มีคุณค่าของประเทศและ มนุษยชาติต่อไป
The purpose of this research is to study, ascertain, gather information of Takraw for analysis and synthetic for academic clarity and showing the identity of the Takraw as an Intangible cultural heritage of Thailand. Using 2 integrated research methods which are 1 . Qualitative research is conducted in 3 ways which are the study of document analysis, the interview Takraw ‘s teacher and professional person with seniority in Takraw, and the talking to small groups who are stakeholders with Takraw in each region in all 4 regions across the country 2 . The quantitative research is conducted in 2 ways, which are using interview questionnaire on Takraw data with the responsible person about Takraw from all 77 provinces in Thailand and surveying the Takraw data through the internet online all 77 provinces nationwide.
Qualitative research results found new information about the Takraw that has never been seen before. It is found that 1) Takraw is one of the oldest Traditional sports in Thailand. Takraw has been played in the Sukhothai period at least 782 years ago. 2) Takraw has a longer history than sports similar to those of neighboring countries. 3) Takraw has evolved from ancient times to the present, divided into 7 categories, which are more than any countries. 4) The evolution of the Takraw began with the playing of "Circle Takraw or Takraw Wong" in ancient times, developed to be "Durable Takraw or Takraw TeThon" and "flexible Takraw or Takraw Pligplang" in the Ayutthaya period. Takraw has the most progress and development during the central Rattanakosin period. After the founding of the Siam Sport Association in the year 1927, it was discovered that Luang Mongkolman invented " Hoop Takraw or Takraw Lodhwong" in the year 1927, Mr. Yim Si Hong and the group created "Net Takraw or Takraw Khamtakhai" in the year 1929, Siam Sport Association developed "Flag Takraw or Takraw Chingthong" in the year 1932 and Thailand is the leader Initiate to persuade neighboring countries of ASEAN to join together to create a new type of Takraw is called "Sepak Takraw" 5) Thailand by Mr. Luang Sukhum Naiya Pradit Was the originator used the Takraw as a medium for relations with neighboring countries in 1957. Impelling until Takraw became the demonstration sport of the first SEAP Games in 1959. 6) The name "Sepak Takraw" originated in 1960 (not in 1965) . 7) The rattan Takraw ball of Thailand is a high level of wickerwork that uses 6 rattan lines (not 10- 12 lines), its form beautiful, strong, durable, the size and appearance are the most standard in the world. 8) The emergence of plastic Takraw ball in the year 1985 is an innovation in sports culture, initiated by Thai people. Manufactured and distributed worldwide by the Thai ‘s Takraw Company. 9) “Hoop Takraw or Takraw Lodhwong” is an example of Thailand's cultural, artistic, and sport heritage that has a graceful posture, showing a Thai style, difficult for any country to emulate.
Other findings have shown that Takraw is an important art and culture of the nation. It’s part of the way of life of Thai society. There is evidence to confirm the existence of the Takraw from the Sukhothai period to the present. Which is a book and research in over 2 4 9 topics and online media of more than 1 ,3 0 3 website concerning Takraw has spread and appeared in every community, every locality, in all 7 7 provinces nationwide. The people who are the owner of the Takraw knowledge and have the most roles in promoting, maintaining, creating and developing the Takraw in the past are the Siam Sports Association. The most successful group of Takraw knowledge successors today Is the Thai Sport Association under the royal patronage and the Takraw Association of Thailand. Takraw is a simple language known in the sport as “Kila Look Hwai” (Rattan ball sports). There are many skills in playing Takraw. Consists of basic skills; such as the inside of the foot, the Instep of the foot, the shin, the knee, the head, jump and kick skills; such as jump over and cross feet kick, jump over and squat kick, Lemon Cutting kick, hand snare skills; such as side kick and hand snare, cross feet kick and hand snare, squat kick and hand snare, Jump over cross feet kick and hand snare, Heel ball in the back and hand snare, Slapped with the soles of the back and hand snare, and fineness & flexible skills; such as stuck on the back of the foot, stuck on the back of the hand, stuck on the head, stuck on the elbow, stuck on the shoulder, stuck on the neck, clamped with a double knees, clamped with the instep, clamping with the folded legs, etc. An important tradition of the Takraw such as its popular to play Takraw as a unification in his free time. Must have manners for playing and watching the Takraw such as when request to join to play the Takraw must wait for the ball to die and must request in politely, know the duties and responsibilities of the ball kicking, maintain his right hand side, try to kick the ball accurately, match the kicking ball with your partner, float the ball in a beautiful manner and able to kick for a long time, the ball doesn't easily fall. The important manners of the Takraw is having to play to the fullest ability, when the ball taked down on the floor those close to him must use the hand to keep the ball to play with friends, do not kick the ball send to friends, play with a cheerful smile, show friendliness, say hello, thank you, apologize and that's okay, don't play a ball that is dangerous to your opponent, don't tease, challenge, taunt competitors and don't delay the game. The transfer of Takraw knowledge in the old days was an informal transfer. Non-formal education Learn yourself from people with better skills or secretly learning like secretly remember and took to play. At present, there is an official knowledge transfer in the education system, there is teaching in the school, there is a modern relay process. Takraw practice in modern times is generally played and practiced for fun. But practice drills that focus on improving playing skills for competition are becoming more popular. Sports science and technology are used to help with training. Currently, there are many types of Takraw competitions occurring. There are competing programs for recreation. To develop skills for excellence, and competitions for a career as professional Takraw. At present, Thailand is a leader in takraw of the world, Thailand ‘s Takraw team is the world champion in many types of Takraw, both men and women. Countries around the world agree that Takraw is a national sport of Thailand.
Quantitative research results Both from interview questionnaires and internet survey methods found the corresponding data. At present, there are playing Takraw both male and female, there are teaching and transferring knowledge of Takraw, there are teachers and knowledge transfer takraw, there are many places to teach and transfer the knowledge of Takraw, there are Takraw training, there are Takraw competition distributed in every locality, all provinces nationwide, 100% in all items. People like to play Takraw in almost every province, or 92.2%. Most of them play at a moderate level. The characteristics of the community that are popular in playing Takraw, most of them have both rural and urban communities. The most popular age groups playing Takraw are in the adolescents, adults, children and the elderly. The most popular type of Takraw are the "Circle Takraw or Takraw Wong”, "Sepak Takraw", and "Hoop Takraw or Takraw Lodhwong". The purpose of playing Takraw is to play as an exercise. To fight against drugs / stay away from Misery, to create health. Takraw playing place in daily life, most of them play at schools / institutions, sports fields, parks, vacant areas beside the house, space next to work, space of the roadside, space in the temple. The purpose of the Takraw practice, mostly practicing as an exercise, and to prepare the competition team. Most opportunities to organize Takraw competitions, organized in a local sporting event, annual Takraw competition, Red Cross fair, and Temple festival.
The results of the research on the role of community, the crisis and the guidelines for prevention, promotion and treatment of Takraw, found that the characteristics of the Takraw club or community there are both formal, semi-formal and informal. Takraw clubs or communities that are formed by the grouping of the people of the community in order to play Takraw or do Takraw activities together it is a voluntary grouping of interest. Takraw clubs or communities ‘s ages have been playing Takraw for 10-30 years. The members are diverse in almost every social class, from million businessmen to garbage collectors. The purpose of joining the Takraw Community Club is to exercise, meet friends, relieve stress by using Takraw as a medium. Most of the thought that Takraw is an important national cultural & art of Thai. There are regular playing Takraw 3-5 days a week. The popular Takraw type, most of them are the Circle Takraw, Sepak Takraw and Hoop Takraw. The outstanding role of the Takraw club or community is to be the backbone in the community that helps, preserve, rehabilitate and promote different types of Takraw as well as to reduce social inequality, clearly promote the equality of people in society. Obstacles and problems of the Takraw community club at present are lack of agencies that are the main host to support the Takraw, location inconvenience, lacking some types of Takraw equipment, lack of facilities to play Takraw such as no electricity. There is no fence to prevent danger from playing. No toilet, no wash area, no place to change clothes, no storage device to play. Unsafe use of the Takraw playing area with criminals stealing things. Inconvenience travel and parking issues, lacking knowledge Takraw personnel who are role models in the old type of Takraw in Thailand, such as "flexible Takraw or Takraw Pligplang" , " Net Takraw or Takraw Khamtakhai" , " Flag Takraw or Takraw Chingthong" and "Durable Takraw or Takwra TeThon". Crisis and current threat factors of Takraw Found that some types of Takraw have been lost such as "Net Takraw or Takraw Khamtakhai" and "Flag Takraw or Takraw Chingthong", and some types are about to disappear such as the "Flexible Takraw or Takraw Pligplang" and "Durable Takraw or Takwra TeThon" . Current guidelines for prevention, treatment and development of Takraw are found. Various types of Takraw subjects should be placed in the curriculum in the educational system of different levels of schools should push for every locality every community. Established a local Takraw community club. There should be a contest to organize different types of Takraw competition, especially old types of Takraw such as "Flexible Takraw or Takraw Pligplang", "Net Takraw or Takraw Khamtakhai" , " Flag Takraw or Takraw Chingthong" and " Durable Takraw or Takwra TeThon". Especially organizing the Takraw competitions in the education system. The honor should be announced Rewarding individuals, communities, and people with Takraw both cultural and sport aspects. The state enterprises or the private sector should help each other to be a host, support, and promote the Takraw. The government should have a tax deduction measure for companies, private stores that use the money to support the Takraw activities. The rules for using the rattan Takraw ball should be the same as the plastic Takraw ball in all types of Takraw competition. And the government should designate a government agency to be responsible for Takraw in national level clearly.